The theology 'of the schools', scholasticism developed with the rise of medieval universities (c. twelfth century) and is typified by its rigorous argumentation centred in the disputation, a form of argument that would set out the alternative viewpoint and then systematically argue against it. Materially, scholasticism is characterised by the synthesis of Greek (especially Aristotelian) philosophy with Christian theology, paradigmatically modelled in the work of Thomas Aquinas. Later scholastics, including John Duns Scotus and William of Ockham, raised trenchant criticisms against Aquinas and Aristotle. While the scholastic method was heavily critiqued by Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther, the intellectual maturation of Protestant theology brought its own scholasticism by the 1600s, which was eventually to fall under the same criticisms as its medieval counterpart.
   Further reading: Aquinas 1963-80, 1993a and 1993b; Kenny, Kretzmann, Pinborg and Stump 1982; Pieper 2001

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

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